Introduction to Passive Safety of Vehicles

In recent years increasing requirements regarding vehicle safety have led to rapid developments, with major innovations in the field of Active and Passive Safety. Especially new legal requirements in the USA (FMVSS 208, 214), the consumer information tests US NCAP, Euro NCAP and IIHS, as well as pedestrian protection should be mentioned here. So far an end of this development is not in sight.

Passive Safety is about initiatives and legal provisions for the limitation of injuries following an accident. All important topics are covered in the seminar, from accident statistics and injury-biomechanics, which are decisive parts of accident research, to the crash-rules and regulations that are derived from the latter, and also to consumer information-tests with protection criteria and test procedures, and eventually to crash tests, where the compliance with the compulsory limits is tested and proven in test procedures. Specific attention is given to dummies, with which the potential loads on a person in an accident can be measured.

Finally the basic principles of occupant protection are explained, and the components of occupant protection systems, respectively restraint-systems in motor vehicles such as airbags, belt-system, steering wheel, seat, interior, stiff passenger compartment and others, as well as their increasingly complex interaction, also in terms of new systems such as Pre Safe, CMS and APIA, will be discussed.

Introduction to Data Acquisition in Safety Testing

Sensor technology and data acquisition are central elements of safety testing. A 100% reliability of the used technology in combination with the highest accuracy of the employed sensors are the basis for the success and usefulness of the tests in vehicle development. The course first presents a short overview on the historical development of data acquisition technology in the safety field and continues to go into details of current technologies of sensors, data acquisition as well as dummy and vehicle instrumentation.

Based on the procedures of a safety test, the different tasks of calibration and certification of sensors, filtering and evaluation of signals, as well as the calculation and evaluation of measurement errors will be explained.

Material Models of Composites for Crash Simulation

Increasing demands for weight reduction paralleled by requirements on improved crash performance and stiffness of structures have strongly pushed the development of advanced composites. The use of composite materials today is not limited to niche applications or secondary parts; they are increasingly used for important load carrying structural components in series production.

In this one day seminar  the foundations of structural impact and crash analysis of composites with the Finite Element Method will be presented. At the beginning of the seminar an overview of current and upcoming industrial applications of composite materials is given. Thereafter concepts for the correct physical modelling of the complex load degradation and failure mechanisms in numerical simulation will be presented. The course concentrates on the numerical simulation of the crash behaviour of composites and is accompanied with demonstrations using the PAM-CRASH code

Euro NCAP and Global Tests for Consumer Protection through Active and Passive Safety

About 30 years ago the US-American Senate demanded with a decree by the Department of Transportation (DOT) to comparatively examine new vehicles under economical and safety aspectsand to publish the results. This was to motivate automakers in their competition to optimize the safety level of the vehicles beyond legal minimum standards. These approaches have been taken up by several organisations since then (Euro NCAP, ADAC, AMS, IIHS, ANCAP, NASVA, J-NCAP) and partly developed further with different main focuses. The multitude of tests and especially the differences in the assessment of crash tests have quite often led to uncertainties with consumers. Some tests have thus been harmonized in recent years. Since its introduction in 1997 the Euro NCAP has been taking a leading role in Europe and also has gained significant influence on other countries. In the beginning the tests that were carried out were frontal impact tests and side impact tests with a moving barrier. In the last few years the lateral pole impact as well as tests for pedestrian protection have been added, child safety was added in 2003. A rear impact test has been added in 2008.

After a short look at the history of NCAP testing and an overview over the responsible organisations, you are going to learn about the different tests. The current crash-tests are going to be compared and discussed, and the stipulated tests are going to be included as well. The assessment criteria (points, star-rating and especially the modifiers) will be explained in detail. The main focus is on the current Euro NCAP. An outlook on the future development of Euro NCAP with an extension of the tests towards Active Safety (Beyond NCAP) and global harmonization.

Frontal Restraint Systems according to FMVSS 208 and Euro NCAP

Belts, belt-load limiters, airbags, steering column, knee bolster, seat… - only if all the components of a frontal restraint-system harmonise exactly it is possible to perfectly meet the different legal limit values as well as the requirements of consumer tests. However, these requirements, e.g. FMVSS 208, US NCAP, Euro NCAP et.al. are manifold and extensive, partly contradict each other, or the requirements superpose each other. Therefore it is a challenge for every development engineer to develop a restraint-system by a clear, strategic procedure; time-saving and target-oriented with an optimal result.

You will learn a procedure how to ideally solve the complex development task of a typical frontal restraint-system design within the scope of the available tools Test and Simulation. Especially the importance and the influence of individual system components (e.g. belt-load limiters) for the accomplishment of development-sub tasks (e.g. minimum chest deflection) will be covered. In addition the influence of the airbag module design on the hazards of Out-of-Position (OoP) situations is going to be discussed, and a possible development-path for the compliance with the OoP requirements according to the FMVSS 208 legislation will be shown. The possibilities and limits of the development tools test and simulation will be discussed and communicated.

Last but not least tips and tricks for a successful overall system design will be part of this course.
In this course you will become familiar with a procedure for the successful development of a frontal restraint-system. Furthermore you will learn which development tool, simulation or test, is best suited for the respective sub task. Moreover you will be made aware of the influence and the importance of the individual components of a restraint-system (belts, belt-load limiters, airbags, steering column, knee bolster, seat,…) on the efficiency of the entire system.

Finally future topics such as the compatibility of vehicles as well as pre-crash preparation and prevention of accidents are going to be integrated into the course.

Knee Mapping Workshop

The EuroNCAP plays a leading role among the tests assessing the passive safety of vehicles in Europe. Its influence now also extends to other countries. Recently the knee impact test procedure within the Euro NCAP frontal impact test was modified, the goal being a less subjective assessment. A hard contact or a sharp edge in the knee area implies the danger for a car manufacturer to be punished with a so-called knee modifier (reduction in points). The knee modifier is the most frequent penalty within the Euro NCAP and impairs some vehicles` otherwise 5-star ratings. The allocation of a knee modifier often is a controversial decision. If a knee modifier has been allocated by the Euro NCAP inspector the car manufacturer has the possibility of proving - by means of a complex sled test procedure - that the modifier was not justified.


After a short introduction the main focus of the workshop is on the current Euro NCAP assessment procedure for frontal impact in the knee area (knee mapping). The current requirements will be explained in detail, in particular the knee modifiers „Variable Contact“ and „Concentrated Loading“, the areas of inspection and the threshold values. Positive / negative examples will facilitate the participants’ understanding of the requirements and the assessment procedure. Participants will learn how to avoid a modifier. The sled test procedure will also be explained and discussed in detail.

International Crash-Rules and Regulations: Current Status and Future Developments

Crash-tests that have to be carried out on the basis of national and international rules and regulations are an integral part of vehicle-development. In this context, the developers of vehicles and components not only need to know and take into account a variety of existing official and German (StVZO), European (ECE, EG/EWG), American (FMVSS) and other nations’ laws, but also have to follow the development of future laws, guidelines and regulations and if necessary integrate them in the development at an early stage.


The first day of the seminar provides an overview over the most important laws and regulations in the field of crash as well as an understanding for the legislative procedures. Initially, the basis for legislation (accident research, biomechanics, criteria) will be explained in the seminar, followed by an introduction and explanation of legislative institutions as well as legislative procedures. One focus of the seminar is the presentation of current crash rules and regulations. In an overview not only the differences between the German, European, American and other laws will be shown, but also the conflicts. The most important and most recent load cases are going to be presented and discussed in greater detail. The goal of this first day is to get a broad overview of the current laws regulating vehicle safety and to learn where to find details of the regulations that can not be dealt with in the seminar.

The second day focuses on an outlook to upcoming laws, amendments of laws with regard to specific countries, their prospective coming into effect as well as on a discussion of the current state. Topics such as pedestrian protection, global harmonization, compatibility and others are going to be referred to in detail. Deliberately the consumer-tests (NCAP, Euro, NCAP,..) will be only marginally mentioned, since these are discussed at length in different courses. The goal of this second day is to prepare the participants for upcoming changes in crash related laws and thus to enable them to these changes into account when designing new vehicles or safety related systems.

Introduction into Vehicle Safety and Injury Biomechanics

To offer insight in the vehicle safety problem and the methods used to quantify and to reduce this problem. Provide a basic understanding on injury mechanisms and injury tolerances for the most vulnerable body parts. Present background, capabilities and limitations of experimental and numerical tools for safety assessment and design. Discuss regulatory issues and future trends in the field of injury biomechanics and vehicle safety design.

Introduction to Airbag Simulation - Simulation, Modelling and Folding

The airbag today is an important and well-established component of the occupant protection system of a motor vehicle. Apart from the standard airbags for driver and passenger used for the protection of the chest and the head more and more different airbags come into operation. Every airbag needs to be carefully designed and optimized for its purpose.

A good airbag simulation is a decisive pre-requisite for a cost-effective development of the airbag system. For this it is not only necessary to understand airbags and airbag components, their interaction and their integration into the vehicle’s interior, but also to know and to be able to apply the modelling techniques.

In this 1-day very practice-oriented course, you will learn the basics of this. The modelling of an airbag consisting of meshing, definition of material models, thermodynamic description and integration in the vehicle are in the focus of this course.

Examples using LS-DYNA, PAM-CRASH and MADYMO are shown. Finally, the modelling of the airbag-folding will be discussed in detail. If you are interested in specific questions, these can be discussed before the course and integrated as far as possible.